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Different types of investments:
Investments can be divided into two main types namely, Traditional and Alternative.
Investing in well-known products will fall into this category.
A Bond is an IOU which is generally used by public and private enterprises to raise a huge amount of money which any financial firm or bank is incapable of lending. These bonds are issued in the public market by the borrowing party and are bought by the lenders for a particular amount of money. Many lenders then join together to lend the required sum of money and the borrowing company is able to arrange capital for its operations as well as growth purposes.
Stocks are shares which are issued by the companies and bought by the general public. They offer an avenue for the companies to raise the required funds. Stocks usually entitle a customer’s ownership. Stocks, Shares, and equities all imply the same thing. Shares are the most popular investment avenues in the market. It is because the returns that are offered by stocks are generally higher in comparison to any other financial instrument. However, in order to balance the high returns associated with stocks, the risk associated with them is also quite high.
Small saving schemes
Small savings schemes are another popular savings tool in the market. They can be a great tool for saving money in small amounts. The main idea behind this tool is to encourage the habit of saving to almost all economic sections. Some of the common small savings tools include Sukanya Samriddhi Scheme, Kisan Vikas Patra, EPF (Employees Provident Fund), Personal Provident Fund (PPF), NPS (National Pension Scheme, etc. Almost all small savings schemes are initiated and facilitated by the government of India so as to increase the penetration of savings schemes in the country.
Employees Provident Fund
It is a small savings scheme which is offered by the employer. It includes salaried individuals of both private as well as public organizations. Any company that has a workforce of more than 20 employees must be registered for this scheme. Around 12% amount is deducted from the salary every month and contributed towards the EPF of an employee. This account is maintained by the Employees Provident Fund Organization of India, commonly known as the EPFO. The amount which is deposited in EPF is eligible for tax exemption as per section 80C of the Income Tax Act.
National Pension Scheme
It is one of the most popular investment schemes for ensuring a regular pension to the individuals working in both private as well as public sectors. NPS is given to individuals either as corporate perks or can be availed by the individuals on their own. The amount set for NPS is eligible for tax rebate. The scheme allows withdrawal of the deposited amount only after the account holder reaches 60 years of age. The amount withdrawn on maturity is completely tax-free.
Mutual funds are professionally managed in different securities. These mutual funds can be of different types based on the types of securities which they invest in. Some of the popular mutual funds are balanced funds, open-ended funds, stock funds, etc. These funds are classified according to their percentage allocation in different securities.
As the name indicates, these are financial instruments which are one of the safest ways to save money. These deposits are not active investment tools, but they are rather a passive way to save and get returns. A fixed sum of money is kept aside with a financial firm for some fixed number of duration. In turn, some interest is earned on this money which differs with the deposit duration and also with the banking entity.
Property rates are rising with every passing day and have made real estate a great investment avenue for the investors. Purchasing, selling, and leasing of property can offer you significant returns. With increasing urbanization, real estate rates in major cities like Delhi, Chennai, etc. are skyrocketing. This has made these places hot hubs for real estate investors. Most of the investors take financial aid from banks to invest in real estate and then sell or lease the same property to get returns offered due to an increase in the price of the property.
Alternative Investments are those which are not regular investments such as stocks, bonds, etc. These kinds of investments are made in order to buy jewellery, precious metals, etc. which are expected to give good returns in the future. Also, another distinctive feature of alternative investments is its low liquidity and minimum investment limits.
Hedge funds invest in both financial derivatives as well as publicly traded securities. They are a popular alternative investment tool due to their high leverage and high returns. These funds are characterized by high fees and low liquidity. The managers of hedge funds usually have some personal stake in the fund.
Private equity trades in shares of a company which is not publicly listed and whose shares are not available in the stock market. Investors employ different strategies to invest in private equity funds.
Venture Capital is the most popular investment which is currently deployed by investors in the Indian start-ups. Substantial capital is invested in a budding company in return for their stocks of the same. This strategy is based on the ideas that find substance in investing in any new technology that may take the market by storm in the coming time.
This type of investment is a great tool to provide portfolio diversification. It is a good option to minimize the risk and maximize the returns. Generally, managed future accounts have sufficient exposure to different markets including agriculture, commodities, currency and more.
Structured products combine two or more different financial instruments to create a packaged investment strategy. Mostly, the derivatives are combined with securities and other kinds of derivatives. These structured products have a fixed date of maturity like bonds.
Collection of artifacts which have a substantial value is one of the most difficult types of alternative investment. This needs a good knowledge of the articles. Mostly, collectibles such as stamps, jewellery, artworks, etc. The value of artifacts is usually expected to increase and keep pace with inflation. Hence, collectibles make a good form of alternative investment.